Mar 03, 2014 | By Carolyn Burstein, NETWORK Communications Fellow
Millions of workers – mostly women – struggle to make ends meet on minimum wage earnings. Women comprise nearly two-thirds of minimum-wage workers although they are only 49.2% of the employed population. They also comprise 61% of full-time minimum-wage workers (working 35 or more hours each week) and nearly two-thirds of workers in tipped occupations.
The share of women varies somewhat by state from a low of 47.7% in California to a high of 63.3% in Mississippi (www.epi.org/raising-federal-minimum-wage). They provide care for children and frail elders, clean homes and offices, and wait tables. Bringing home $10.10 an hour would mean more money for food, gas, diapers and shoes.
The Economic Policy Institute (EPI) provides important facts that defy our stereotypes about minimum-wage workers: more than three-quarters of women are 20 or older (not teenagers!) and most do not have a spouse's income to rely on.
Full-time work at $7.25 an hour pays only $15,080 a year. That's nearly $4,500 below the poverty level for a mom and two kids. It's even slightly below the poverty level for a family of two. Increasing the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour, as proposed by the president and legislation pending in Congress, would boost annual earnings to about $20,200, enough to help pull a mom and her two kids out of poverty.
If the minimum wage had been indexed to inflation, as we do for Social Security, it would be $10.72 today. If it had grown at the same rate as productivity (which it did until the 1980s), it would be $18.30 today, according to an EPI study.
The declining real value of the minimum wage has significantly contributed to the enormous growth in U.S. income inequality. The gap between the minimum and average wages of typical American workers used to be much smaller than it is today. From the mid-sixties to the early 1980s, minimum-wage workers earned a wage that was equal to about half that of the typical American worker. Today's minimum wage is equal to only about 36% of that worker (of course, much could be said about the inadequate "typical" wage today). But raising the minimum-wage to $10.10 by 2016 would return the minimum-wage to roughly 50% of the average production worker wage.
Increasing the minimum wage would boost wages for millions of working women and help close the wage gap. The EPI estimates that if the minimum wage were gradually increased to $10.10 per hour, almost 28 million workers would get a raise, including over 1 million workers earning slightly more than the minimum wage due to what economists call the "spillover effects." The Center for American Progress concludes that about 55% of those directly affected and nearly 50% of those indirectly affected by the increase would be wo