programs are those available to persons or households that fall below a given
level of income or economic worth. They are key to the social-safety net,
intended to prevent falling into deep poverty. Among the means-tested programs
in the United States are Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
(cash assistance), child care, selected education loans and grants, Low-Income
Home Energy Assistance, refundable tax credits and Supplemental Nutrition
Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamps).